Geography Optional English Notes by Alok Ranjan DOWNLOADED VERSION


Geography Optional Notes by Alok Ranjan very useful for UPSC and Civil services exam preparation for best result any query call us 7678651778



Geography Optional Notes by Alok Ranjan best for UPSC exam preparation. Alok Rajan sir is the best faculty and his notes also best for the exam and help to get the best marks in the exam.

These notes for English medium and class notes.

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Geography Optional Notes by Alok Ranjan

1. Geomorphology:

  • Factors controlling landform development;
  • Fundamentals of geomagnetism;
  • Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust
  • Geosynclines;
  • Continental drift; Isostasy;
  • Plate tectonics
  • Physical conditions of the earth’s interior;


  • Physical conditions of the earth’s interior;
  • Temperature and pressure belts of the world
  • Heat budget of the earth;
  • Atmospheric circulation
  • Atmospheric stability and instability.
  • Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams;


  • Bottom topography of the Atlantic,:
  • Indian and Pacific Oceans
  • Ocean deposits;,
  • Heat and salt budgets
  • Temperature and salinity of the oceans;
  • currents and tides; Marine resources


  • Genesis of soils;
  • Soil profile;
  • Classification and distribution of soils;
  • Degradation and conservation
  • Soil erosion,

5.Environmental Geography:

  • Human ecological adaptations;
  • Principle of ecology;
  • Influence of man on ecology and environment;

Human Geography

  • Perspectives in Human Geography:
  • Areal differentiation;
  • Regional synthesis;
  • Environmentalism;
  • Dichotomy and dualism;

2.Economic Geography

  • World economic development:
  • measurement and problems;
  • World resources and their distribution;
  • Energy crisis
  • World agriculture

3.Population and Settlement Geography:

  • Growth and distribution of world population;
  • concepts of the over-under and optimum population;
  • Causes and consequences of migration;

4.Regional Planning: Concept of a region;

  • Types of regions and methods of Regionalization
  • Growth centers and growth poles;
  • Regional imbalances;
  • regional development strategies;


Geography Of India

2. Resources:

3. Agriculture

4. Industry:

5. Transport,

6. Cultural Setting:

7. Settlements:

8. Regional Development and Planning

9. Political Aspects:

10. Contemporary Issues

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