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PAPER – I
- Archaeological sources:
- Exploration, excavation,
- Pre-history and Proto-history:
- Geographical factors;
- hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic);
- Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
- Indus Valley Civilization:
- Origin, date, extent,
- survival and significance,
- art and architecture.
- Megalithic Cultures:
- Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus,
- Aryans and Vedic Period:
- Expansions of Aryans in India.
- Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature;
- Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada) :
- Republics and monarchies;
- The rise of urban centers;
- Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage;
- Spread of Jainism and Buddhism;
- Mauryan Empire:
- Foundation of the Mauryan Empire,
- Chandragupta, Kautilya, and Arthashastra;
- Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas,
- Western Kshatrapas):
- Contact with the outside world;
- Early State and Society in Eastern India,
- Deccan and South India: Kharavela,
- The Satavahanas,
- The Tamil States of the Sangam Age;
- Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas: Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
- Regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity, and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Govern-ment; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
- Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
- Early Medieval India, 750-1200: – Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs – The Cholas: administration, village economy and society – “Indian Feudalism” – Agrarian economy and urban settlements – Trade and commerce – Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order – Condition of women – Indian science and technology
- Cultural Traditions in India, 750- 1200: – Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and BrahmaMimansa – Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism – Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India – Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting
- The Thirteenth Century: – Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success – Economic, social and cultural consequences – Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans – Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
- The Fourteenth Century: – “The Khalji Revolution” – Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures – Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq – Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account
- Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries: – Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement – Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture – Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce
- The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy: – Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids – The Vijayanagra Empire – Lodis – Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun – The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration – Portuguese Colonial enterprise – Bhakti and Sufi Movements
- The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture: – Regional cultural specificities – Literary traditions – Provincial architecture – Society, culture, literature and the arts in the Vijayanagara Empire.
- Akbar: – Conquests and consolidation of the Empire – Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems – Rajput policy – Evolution of religious and social outlook, the theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy – Court patronage of art and technology
- Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century: – Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb – The Empire and the Zamindars – Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb – Nature of the Mughal State – Late Seventeenth-century crisis and the revolts – The Ahom Kingdom – Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
- Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: – Population, agricultural production, craft production – Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution – Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems – Condition of peasants, condition of women – Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
- Culture in the Mughal Empire: – Persian histories and other literature – Hindi and other religious literature – Mughal architecture – Mughal painting – Provincial architecture and painting – Classical music – Science and technology
- The Eighteenth Century: – Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire – The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh – Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas – The Maratha fiscal and financial system – Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761 – State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest
PAPER – II
- European Penetration into India: The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
- British Expansion in India: Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
- Early Structure of the British Raj: The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.
- Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule: (a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society. (b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including tele-graph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.
- Social and Cultural Developments: The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.
- Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas: Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
- Indian Response to British Rule: Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.
- Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
- Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
- Constitutional Developments in Colonial India between 1858 and 1935
- Other strands in the National Movement The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.
- Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
- Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbors (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganization of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
- Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
- Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of science.
- Enlightenment and Modern ideas: (i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau (ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.
- Origins of Modern Politics: (i) European States System. (ii) American Revolution and the Constitution. (iii) French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815. (iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery. (v) British Democratic Politics, 1815- 1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
- Industrialization: (i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society (ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan (iii) Industrialization and Globalization.
- Nation-State System: (i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century (ii) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy (iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.
- Imperialism and Colonialism: (i) South and South-East Asia (ii) Latin America and South Africa (iii) Australia (iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
- Revolution and CounterRevolution: (i) 19th Century European revolutions (ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921 (iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany. (iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949
- World Wars: (i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications (ii) World War I: Causes and consequences (iii) World War II: Causes and consequence
- The World after World War II: (i) Emergence of two power blocs (ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment (iii) UNO and the global disputes.
- Liberation from Colonial Rule: (i) Latin America-Bolivar (ii) Arab World-Egypt (iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy (iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam
- Decolonization and Underdevelopment: (i) Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa
- Unification of Europe:
(i) Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) the European Union.
- The disintegration of the Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World
Total Number Of Pages:- 2362